Can Baby Monitors Cause Canser?

There are several studies that try to link baby monitor EMF radiation to cancer but none of them have conclusively concluded that baby monitors cause cancer to infants and kids. Scholars and experts have not agreed that baby monitors cause cancer but to be on the side of caution, we recommend that you should place baby monitors at least 3 ft. away from the baby’s sleep area to reduce EMF exposure. You can read more on baby monitor radiation here.

Independent organizations such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is part of the World Health Organization (WHO) declared in 2011 that all radio frequencies are a possible cause of cancer.

Studies Linking Radiation to Cancer

Below are studies that seek to answer the question of whether wireless devices including baby monitors cause cancer.

Anthony B. Miller, L. Lloyd Morgan, Iris Udasin and Devra Lee Davis. “Cancer Epidemiology Update, following the 2011 IARC Evaluation of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (Monograph 102)”  Environmental Research, September 6, 2018.

  • Increased risk of brain, vestibular nerve and salivary gland tumors are associated with mobile phone use. 
  • Literature review: Based on the evidence reviewed it is our opinion that IARC’s current categorization of RFR as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B) should be upgraded to Carcinogenic to Humans (Group 1).

Hardell, Lennart and Michael Carlberg. “Use of Wireless Phones and Evidence for Increased Risk of Brain Tumors.” BioInitiative Working Group, Section 11 (2017).

  • “Since the IARC evaluation in 2011 more studies have been published that support a causal association between RF radiation and brain and head tumors. In the following an updated summary is given of case-control studies on brain and head tumors; glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma. “

Momoli, F., et al. “Probabilistic multiple-bias modelling applied to the Canadian data from the INTERPHONE study of mobile phone use and risk of glioma, meningioma, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors.” American Journal of Epidemiology, 2017.

  • Since the 13-nation Interphone study was published in 2010, several methods papers have been published that reanalyze the data to correct for biases in the original paper. In most instances the glioma risk estimates increased after adjustment for study biases among long term or heavy mobile phone users.
  • Researchers undertook a re-analysis of the Canadian data from the thirteen-country INTERPHONE case-control study (2001-2004), which evaluated the association between mobile phone use and risk of brain, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors.
  • The authors found that the risk estimate for glioma among the highest quartile of cell phone users increased after adjustment. Risk estimates for other types of head tumors did not change.

Yang, M., et al. “Mobile phone use and glioma risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.” PLoS One, vol. 12, no. 5, 2017.

  • The objective of our study was to investigate the potential association between mobile phone use and subsequent glioma risk using meta-analysis.
  • There was a significant positive association between long-term mobile phone use (minimum, 10 years) and glioma (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.08–1.91). And there was a significant positive association between long-term ipsilateral mobile phone use and the risk of glioma (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.12–1.92). Long-term mobile phone use was associated with 2.22 times greater odds of low-grade glioma occurrence (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.69–2.92). Mobile phone use of any duration was not associated with the odds of high-grade glioma (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.72–0.92).
  • Our results suggest that long-term mobile phone use may be associated with an increased risk of glioma.

Bortkiewicz, A., E. Gadzicka and W. Szymczak.“Mobile phone use and risk for intracranial tumors and salivary gland tumors – A meta-analysis.”International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, vol. 30, no. 1, 2017, pp. 27-43.

  • Researchers conducted a systematic review of multiple electronic databases for relevant publications. Twenty four studies (26 846 cases, 50 013 controls) on individual exposure were included into the meta-analysis.
  • A significantly higher risk of an intracranial tumor (all types) was noted for the period of mobile phone use over 10 years (odds ratio (OR) = 1.324, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.028-1.704), and for the ipsilateral location (OR = 1.249, 95% CI: 1.022-1.526).
  • The results support the hypothesis that long-term use of mobile phone increases risk of intracranial tumors, especially in the case of ipsilateral exposure.

Prasad, Manya, et al. “Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours: a systematic review of association between study quality, source of funding, and research outcomes.” Neurological Sciences, 2017, pp. 1-14.

  • This paper aims to investigate whether methodological quality of studies and source of funding can explain the variation in results. Twenty-two case control studies were included for systematic review
  • For mobile phone use of 10 years or longer (or >1640 h), the overall result of the meta-analysis showed a significant 1.33 times increase in risk. The summary estimate of government funded as well as phone industry funded studies showed no significant increase, while mixed funded studies did not show any increase in risk of brain tumour. The association was significantly linked with methodological study quality. Evidence linking mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours especially in long-term users (≥10 years) was found. Studies with higher quality showed a trend towards high risk of brain tumour, while lower quality showed a trend towards lower risk/protection.

Carlberg, Micheal and Lennart Hardell. “Evaluation of Mobile Phone and Cordless Phone Use and Glioma Risk Using the Bradford Hill Viewpoints from 1965 on Association or Causation.” BioMed Research International, vol. 2017, 2017.

  • Bradford Hill’s viewpoints from 1965 on association or causation were used on glioma risk and use of mobile or cordless phones. All nine viewpoints were evaluated based on epidemiology and laboratory studies.
  • Increased risk for glioma was in the temporal lobe. Using meningioma cases as comparison group still increased the risk. Highest risk was in the 20+ years’ latency group, OR = 2.01, 95% CI =1.41–2.88, for wireless phones. Cumulative use of wireless phones increased the risk.
  • Animal studies showed an increased incidence of glioma and malignant schwannoma in rats exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. There is increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from RF radiation.
  • Coherence: There is a change in the natural history of glioma and increasing incidence.
  • Conclusion. RF radiation should be regarded as a human carcinogen causing glioma.

Havas, Magda. “When theory and observation collide: Can non-ionizing radiation cause cancer?” Environmental Pollution, vol. 221, 2017, pp. 501-5.

Carlberg, Michael, et al. “Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main focus on Swedish data.” BMC Cancer, vol. 16, no. 426, 2016.

  • “The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in many countries, especially the papillary type that is the most radiosensitive type.” Researchers used the Swedish Cancer Register to study the incidence of thyroid cancer during 1970–2013 using joinpoint regression analysis.
  • Results showed an increased incidence of thyroid cancer in Sweden from 1970-2013, with the increase being statistically significant in women but not men. Other nordic countries also showed significantly statistic thyroid cancer increases.
  • “We postulate that the whole increase cannot be attributed to better diagnostic procedures. Increasing exposure to ionizing radiation, e.g. medical computed tomography (CT) scans, and to RF-EMF (non-ionizing radiation) should be further studied.”

Grell, Kathrine, et al. “The Intracranial Distribution of Gliomas in Relation to Exposure From Mobile Phones: Analyses From the INTERPHONE Study.”American Journal of Epidemiology 184.11 (2016): 818-28.

  • Researchers used the INTERPHONE study data to examine the relationship between the self-reported location of cell phone during use and brain tumor position in 792 regular cell phone users diagnosed with a glioma between 2000 and 2004.
  • Results indicated a statistically significant association between intracranial distribution of gliomas and location of phone.
  • “Taken together, our results suggest that ever using a mobile phone regularly is associated with glioma localization in the sense that more gliomas occurred closer to the ear on the side of the head where the mobile phone was reported to have been used the most.”

National Toxicology Program (NTP) Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation, Final Reports

On November 1, 2018 the National Toxicology Program (NTP) released their final reports on their 30 million dollar studies on  rats and mice exposed to long term radiofrequency radiation. NIHSH accepted all of the March 2018 expert peer reviewer recommendations to strengthen the conclusions regarding several effects from the exposure, increasing the level of confidence for the associations.
  • The malignant schwannoma tumors found in the heart of male rats were categorized as “clear evidence of carcinogenicity.”
  • The malignant gliomas found in the brain of male rats were categorized as “some evidence of carcinogenicity.”
  • The tumors of the adrenal medulla in male rats (GSM) were categorized as “some evidence of carcinogenicity.”
  • Statistically significant increases in an unusual pattern of right ventricle cardiomyopathy (damage to heart tissue) in the exposed male and female rat groups 3 and 6 W/kg.
  • Statistically significant increased numbers of tumors were found in other organs at one or more of the exposure levels studied, including the prostate gland, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, liver and pancreas.
  • Increased DNA damage at 14 weeks:  CDMA Rats: Positive in hippocampus (males); equivocal in frontal cortex (males); Mice GSM Positive in frontal cortex (males);  Mice CDMA: Positive in frontal cortex (males) and leukocytes (females);
  • In the rat studies, exposures were initiated in utero and consistently resulted in exposure concentration-related decreases in pup body weight and body weight gains during the perinatal period. In general, decreased pup survival was observed at the higher levels of RFR tested.
  • In both mice studies (GSM and CDMA), there were higher incidences of malignant lymphoma in all groups of female mice exposed to RFR compared to controls and there were higher incidences of skin and lung tumors in males exposed to the highest two levels of GSM-modulated RFR (5 and 10 W/kg), and of liver tumors at the mid-dose (5 W/kg) of CDMA-modulated RFR.
  • Conclusions for rat studies: “In males for both GSM- and CDMA-modulated RFR, we conclude that exposures increased the number of animals with tumors in the heart. Tumors of the brain were also considered to be related to exposure; and increased numbers of male rats with tumors of the adrenal gland were also related to exposure. We are uncertain whether occurrences of prostate gland, pituitary gland, and pancreatic islet tumors in male rats exposed to GSM-modulated RFR and pituitary gland and liver tumors in male rats exposed to CDMA-modulated RFR were related to RFR exposures. This was also the case with female rats, where we conclude that exposure to GSM- or CDMA-modulated RFR may have been related to tumors in the heart. For females exposed to CDMA-modulated RFR, occurrences of brain and adrenal gland tumors may have been related to exposure.”
  • Conclusions for mice studies: “For GSM-modulated RFR, we conclude that exposure to RFR may have caused tumors in the skin and lungs of male mice and malignant lymphomas in female mice. For CDMA-modulated RFR, we conclude that exposure to RFR may have caused tumors in the liver of male mice and malignant lymphomas in female mice.”
  • National Institutes of Health February 2, 2018 Press release on the NTP Report “High exposure to radiofrequency radiation linked to tumor activity in male rats
  • NIEHS/NTP Peer Review Report of the NTP Technical Reports on Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation March 26–28, 2018 at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences  Research Triangle Park, NC. ActionsAgendaMeeting Materials, MembersPeer Review ReportPresentations, Videos,  Peer Review Report
  • National Institutes of Health Cell Phone Webpage: This has the key findings, final reports and a factsheet for the public.
  • National Toxicology Program, Evaluation Of The Genotoxicity Of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation In Male And Female Rats And Mice Following Subchronic Exposure, September 2017
  • At the annual meeting of the Environmental Mutagenesis and Genomics Society in September  2017 scientists from the National Toxicology Program presented Evaluation Of The Genotoxicity Of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation In Male And Female Rats And Mice Following Subchronic Exposure. The abstract of the NIEHS presentation says:
  • “DNA damage was significantly increased in the frontal cortex of male mice (both modulations), peripheral leukocytes of female mice (CDMA only), and hippocampus of male rats (CDMA only)…These results suggest that exposure to RFR has the potential to induce measurable DNA damage under certain exposure conditions.”
  • National Institutes of Health February 2, 2018 Press release on the NTP Report “High exposure to radiofrequency radiation linked to tumor activity in male rats”  
  • “High exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in rodents resulted in tumors in tissues surrounding nerves in the hearts of male rats, but not female rats or any mice, according to draft studies from the National Toxicology Program (NTP). The exposure levels used in the studies were equal to and higher than the highest level permitted for local tissue exposure in cell phone emissions today. Cell phones typically emit lower levels of RFR than the maximum level allowed. NTP’s draft conclusions were released today as two technical reports, one for rat studies and one for mouse studies. NTP will hold an external expert review of its complete findings from these rodent studies March 26-28.The incidence of tumors, called malignant schwannomas, that were observed in the heart increased in male rats as they were exposed to increasing levels of RFR beyond the allowable cell phone emissions. Researchers also noted increases in an unusual pattern of cardiomyopathy, or damage to heart tissue, in exposed male and female rats. Overall, there was little indication of health problems in mice related to RFR.The reports also point out statistically significant increases in the number of rats and mice with tumors found in other organs at one or more of the exposure levels studied, including the brain, prostate gland, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, liver, and pancreas. However, the researchers determined that these were equivocal findings, meaning it was unclear if any of these tumor increases were related to RFR.”
  • 5/2016 release of partial findings: Wyde, Michael, et al. “Report of Partial findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposure).” bioRxiv, 055699, 2016. (National Toxicology Program Video Presentation that includes genotoxicity results June 2016) Transcript of the 2016 press conference

L. Falcioni, L. Bua, E.Tibaldi, M. Lauriola, L. De Angelis, F. GnudiD. Mandrioli, M. Manservigi, F. Manservisi, I. Manzoli, I. Menghetti, R. Montella, S. Panzacchi, D. Sgargi, V. Strollo, A.Vornoli, F. Belpoggi , “Report of final results regarding brain and heart tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to mobile phone radiofrequency field representative of a 1.8 GHz base station environmental emission”  Environmental Research, 2018 Mar 7. pii: S0013-9351(18)30036-7. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.037

  • The RI findings on far field exposure to RFR are consistent with and reinforce the results of the NTP study on near field exposure, as both reported an increase in the incidence of tumors of the brain and heart in RFR-exposed Sprague-Dawley rats. These tumors are of the same histotype of those observed in some epidemiological studies on cell phone users. These experimental studies provide sufficient evidence to call for the re-evaluation of IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenic potential of RFR in humans

Siqueira, Elisa Carvalho, et al. “Cell phone use is associated with an inflammatory cytokine profile of parotid gland saliva.” Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, vol. 45 , 2016, pp. 682-6.

  • “The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cell phone use alters cytokine expression in the saliva produced by the parotid glands.”
  • Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assays were used to determine the cytokine expression profiles of saliva produced by the parotid gland within subjects exposed to cell phone radiation in comparison to those not exposed.
  • Significantly altered levels of interleukin 10 and 1-Beta were found between exposed and unexposed individuals in a manner that is consistent with a pro-inflammatory microenvironment within the parotid gland.

Barnes, Frank, and Ben Greenebaum. “Some Effects of Weak Magnetic Fields on Biological Systems: RF fields can change radical concentrations and cancer cell growth rates.” IEEE Power Electronics Magazine, vol. 3, no. 1, 2016, pp. 60-8.

  • Concerns have been raised about the possible biological effects of nonionizing radiation and low-intensity fields, including low frequency fields from the electric power generating, transmission, and distribution system and the devices it energizes, as well as intermediate, radio-frequency (RF), and higher-frequency radiation from devices such as cell phones, broadcast antennas, Wi-Fi, security monitors, and so forth. These are concerns about the direct effects of radiation on humans or other organisms. They are distinct from the electromagnetic compatibility issues that concern interference by the fields from one device with the function of another, though human health can be indirectly affected by electromagnetic interference with the function of medical devices, including hospital equipment or pacemakers.

Lerchl, et al. “Tumor promotion by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields below exposure limits for humans.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2015.

  • A replication study. “Numbers of tumors of the lungs and livers in exposed animals were significantly higher than in sham-exposed controls. In addition, lymphomas were also found to be significantly elevated by exposure. A clear dose–response effect is absent. We hypothesize that these tumor-promoting effects may be caused by metabolic changes due to exposure. Since many of the tumor-promoting effects in our study were seen at low to moderate exposure levels (0.04 and 0.4 W/kg SAR), thus well below exposure limits for the users of mobile phones, further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Our findings may help to understand the repeatedly reported increased incidences of brain tumors in heavy users of mobile phones.”

Morgan, L.L., et al. “Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (review).”International Journal of Oncology, vol. 46, no. 5, 2015, pp. 1865-71.  

  • The CERENAT finding of increased risk of glioma is consistent with studies that evaluated use of mobile phones for a decade or longer and corroborate those that have shown a risk of meningioma from mobile phone use. 
  • We conclude that radiofrequency fields should be classified as a Group 2A ̔probable̓ human carcinogen under the criteria used by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France). Additional data should be gathered on exposures to mobile and cordless phones, other WTDs, mobile phone base stations and Wi‑Fi routers to evaluate their impact on public health.
  • We advise that the as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA) principle be adopted for uses of this technology, while a major cross‑disciplinary effort is generated to train researchers in bioelectromagnetics and provide monitoring of potential health impacts of RF‑EMF.

Coureau, G., et al. “ Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study.” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 71, no. 7, 2014, pp. 514-22.

  • “CERENAT is a multicenter case-control study carried out in four areas in France in 2004–2006. No association with brain tumours was observed when comparing regular mobile phone users with non-users. However, the positive association was statistically significant in the heaviest users when considering life-long cumulative duration for meningiomas  and number of calls for gliomas Risks were higher for gliomas, temporal tumours, occupational and urban mobile phone use.
  • These additional data support previous findings concerning a possible association between heavy mobile phone use and brain tumours.”

Davis, D.L., et al. “Swedish review strengthens grounds for concluding that radiation from cellular and cordless phones is a probable human carcinogen.” Pathophysiology, vol. 20, no. 2, 2013, pp. 123-9.

  • “Given that treatment for a single case of brain cancer can cost between $100,000 for radiation therapy alone and up to $1 million depending on drug costs, resources to address this illness are already in short supply and not universally available in either developing or developed countries. Significant additional shortages in oncology services are expected at the current growth of cancer. No other environmental carcinogen has produced evidence of an increased risk in just one decade…If the increased brain cancer risk found in young users in these recent studies does apply at the global level, the gap between supply and demand for oncology services will continue to widen. Many nations, phone manufacturers, and expert groups, advise prevention in light of these concerns by taking the simple precaution of “distance” to minimize exposures to the brain and body. We note than brain cancer is the proverbial “tip of the iceberg”; the rest of the body is also showing effects other than cancers.”

Hardell, M. and L. Carlberg. “Cell and cordless phone risk for glioma – Analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997-2003 and 2007-2009.” Pathophysiology, vol. 22, no. 1, 2014, pp. 1-13.

  • “Conclusion. We previously analysed the evidence on glioma associated with the use of  wireless phones using the Hill criteria [20]. We concluded that glioma and also acoustic neuroma are caused by RF-EMF emissions from wireless phones, and thus regarded as carcinogenic, under Group 1 according to the IARC classification, indicating that current guidelines for exposure should be urgently revised. This pooled analysis gives further support to that conclusion regarding glioma.”

Carlberg, M. and L. Hardell. “Decreased Survival of Glioma Patients with Astrocytoma Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme) Associated with Long-Term Use of Mobile and Cordless Phones.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 11, no. 10, 2014, pp. 10790-805.

  • Survival was analyzed for 1678 glioma patients in Hardells1997–2003 and 2007–2009 case-control studies.  “Elevated HR (decreased survival) for the most malignant glioma type, astrocytoma grade IV, was found for long-term use of mobile and cordless phones.Highest HR was found for cases with first use before the age of 20 years. These results indicate a survival disadvantage for use of wireless phones in that patient group”.
  • “The study strengthens the proposed causal association between use of mobile and cordless phones and glioma.  Due to the relationship with survival the classification of IARC is strengthened and RF-EMF should be regarded as human carcinogen requiring urgent revision of current exposure guidelines”.

Lloyd Morgan, Santosh Kesari and Devra Lee Davis. “Why children absorb more microwave radiation than adults: The consequences.” Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure, vol. 2, no. 4, 2014, pp. 197-204.

  • International Cancer registries are showing a rise in brain cancer.  Children absorb more microwave radiation, a Class 2 B possible carcinogen than adults.  The fetus is in greater danger than children from exposure to MWR.  The legal exposure limits have remained unchanged for decades.  Cellphone manuals warnings and the 20 cm rule for tablets/laptops violate the “normal operating position” regulation.

Hardell, L., et al. “Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use. International Journal of Oncology, vol. 43, no. 6, 2013, pp. 1833-45.

  • For persons with more than 25 years latency period (time since first use until tumour diagnosis) a 3-fold increased risk was found. The risk increased further for tumours located in the most exposed area of the brain, the temporal lobe, to a 5-fold increased risk.
  • “This study confirmed previous results of an association between mobile and cordless phone use and malignant brain tumours. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that RF-EMFs play a role both in the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis”.

Hardell, L., et al. “Pooled analysis of case-control studies on acoustic neuroma diagnosed 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 and use of mobile and cordless phones.” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 43, no. 4, 2013, pp. 1036-44.

  • “Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral for both mobile and cordless phones. OR increased per 100 h cumulative use and per year of latency for mobile phones and cordless phones, though the increase was not statistically significant for cordless phones. The percentage tumour volume increased per year of latency and per 100 h of cumulative use, statistically significant for analogue phones. This study confirmed previous results demonstrating an association between mobile and cordless phone use and acoustic neuroma.”

Hardell, L., M. Carlberg. “Using the Hill viewpoints from 1965 for evaluating strengths of evidence of the risk for brain tumors associated with use of mobile and cordless phones.” Reviews on Environmental Health, vol. 28, no. 2-3, 2013, pp. 97-106.

  • “All nine issues on causation according to Hill were evaluated. The criteria on strength, consistency, specificity, temporality, and biologic gradient for evidence of increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma were fulfilled.
  • Based on the Hill criteria, glioma and acoustic neuroma should be considered to be caused by RF-EMF emissions from wireless phones and regarded as carcinogenic to humans, classifying it as group 1 according to the IARC classification. Current guidelines for exposure need to be urgently revised.”

Hardell, L., M. Carlberg and Mild K. Hansson. “Use of mobile phones and cordless phones is associated with increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma.” Pathophysiology, vol. 20, no. 2, 2013, pp. 85-110.

  • “We give an overview of current epidemiological evidence for an increased risk for brain tumours including a meta-analysis of the Hardell group and Interphone results for mobile phone use. It is concluded that one should be careful using incidence data to dismiss results in analytical epidemiology. The IARC carcinogenic classification does not seem to have had any significant impact on governments’ perceptions of their responsibilities to protect public health from this widespread source of radiation”.

Cardis, Elisabeth, et al. “Risk of brain tumours in relation to estimated RF dose from mobile phones: results from five Interphone countries.”Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 68, no. 9,  2011, pp. 631-40.

  • Researchers examined the radiofrequency exposure from mobile phones between subjects from the Interphone study with brain tumors (gliomas and meningiomas) and their matched control cases.
  • “An increased risk of glioma was seen in individuals at the highest quintile of radio frequency dose, though reduced risks were seen in the four lower quintiles. When risk was examined as a function of dose received in different time windows before diagnosis, an increasing trend was observed with increasing radio frequency dose (p = 0.01) for exposures 7 years or more in the past.”
  • “Case – case analyses, made possible by tumour localisation, indicated an increased risk in the most exposed region of the brain compared with other areas among long-term users. Our results suggest that there may be an increase in risk of glioma in the most exposed area of the brain among long-term and heavy users of mobile phones.”

IARC Working Group.“Non-ionizing radiation, Part II: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields” IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 102, no. 2, 2011, pp. 1-460.

  • Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).” (p. 421)
  • “Overall, the Working Group reviewed all the available evidence with regard to the use of wireless phones, including both mobile and cordless phones, and the risk of glioma. Time trends were considered, as were several early case–control studies and one cohort study. The evidence from these studies was considered less informative than the results of the INTERPHONE study and the Swedish case–control study. While both of these are susceptible to bias, the Working Group concluded that these findings could not be dismissed as reflecting bias alone, and that a causal interpretation was possible.”
  • “In considering the evidence on acoustic neuroma, the Working Group considered the same methodological concerns as for glioma, but concluded that bias was not sufficient to explain the positive findings, particularly those of the study from Sweden.” (p. 412)

Markovà, E.,  L. Malmgren and I. Belyaev. “Microwaves from Mobile Phones Inhibit 53BP1 Focus Formation in Human Stem Cells More Strongly Than in Differentiated Cells: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk.” Environmental Health Perspective, vol. 118, no. 3, 2010, pp. 394–9.

  • “The strongest microwave effects were always observed in stem cells. This result may suggest both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response. Our findings that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicate that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals.”

Hardell, L. and M. Carlberg. “Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumours.” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 35, 2009, pp. 5-17.

  • The Hardell-group conducted during 1997-2003 two case control studies on brain tumours including assessment of use of mobile phones and cordless phones.
  • Regarding astrocytoma we found highest risk for ipsilateral mobile phone use in the >10 year latency group, OR=3.3, 95% CI=2.0-5.4 and for cordless phone use OR=5.0, 95% CI=2.3-11.
  • In total, the risk was highest for cases with first use <20 years age, for mobile phone OR=5.2, 95% CI=2.2-12 and for cordless phone OR=4.4, 95% CI=1.9-10.
  • For acoustic neuroma, the highest OR was found for ipsilateral use and >10 year latency, for mobile phone OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.4-6.2 and cordless phone OR=2.3, 95% CI=0.6-8.8. Overall highest OR for mobile phone use was found in subjects with first use at age  less than 20 years.

Myung S.K., et al. “Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Tumors: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 33, 2009, pp. 5565-72.

  • A Meta-Analysis- “The current study found that there is possible evidence linking mobile phone use to an increased risk of tumors from a meta-analysis of low-biased case-control studies. Prospective cohort studies providing a higher level of evidence are needed”.

Sadetzki, Siegal, et al. “Cellular Phone Use and Risk of Benign and Malignant Parotid Gland Tumors–A Nationwide Case-Control Study.” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 167, no. 4, 2007, pp. 457-67.

  • This research assessed the relationship between cellphone use and tumors of the parotid gland, utilizing data from Israeli subjects diagnosed at age 18 or more and matched controls.
  • Results suggested that there is a relationship between long-term and heavy cellphone use and parotid gland tumor development.
  • “Until more evidence becomes available, we believe that the precautionary approach currently adopted by most scientific committees and applied by many governments should continue to be used.”

Belyaev, I.Y., et al. Microwaves from UMTS/GSM mobile phones induce long-lasting inhibition of 53BP1/-H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes. Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 30, 2009, pp. 129–41.

Belyaev, I. Dependence of non–thermal biological effects of microwaves on physical and biological variables: implications for reproducibility and safety standards. In L. Giuliani, M. Soffritti (Eds.), European J. Oncol.—Library Non–Thermal Effects and Mechanisms of Interaction between Electromagnetic Fields and Living Matter, 5, Ramazzini Institute, Bologna, Italy, 2010, pp. 187–218 (An ICEMS Monograph).

Hardell, L., et al. “Pooled analysis of two case-control studies on the use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk of benign brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003.” International Journal of Oncology, 2006, pp. 509-18.

  • In the multivariate analysis, a significantly increased risk of acoustic neuroma was found with the use of analogue phones.
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